technologies include diverse treatments developed and applied for the purpose
of overcoming infertility, whose causes may be hormonal or structural (e.g.,
the absence of a uterus), medical (genetic or other diseases that make it
difficult to conceive or to carry a pregnancy to term), or social (single parents
or same-sex couples). They include artificial insemination, in-vitro
fertilization, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), surrogacy, various
medical and hormonal treatments, and more.
Selected ethical issues:
selection and genetic enhancement.
pressure to conceive, physical harm caused to the woman’s body and
psychological burden on parents.
of reproductive cells and organs (sperm, eggs, uterus).
embryos (donation for reproduction / donation for research / destruction).
the traditional family structure.
and exploitation of a woman’s body to realize someone else’s aspiration to be a
- (In)justice – (un)equal access to assisted reproductive
technology, in view of high costs and social discrimination (e.g., against